Why Two Easters?

Why Two Easters?

Moments in History

All around the world Christians celebrate Easter. On that day we come together to remember and celebrate Jesus’ resurrection. However, not all Christians meet on the same day of the year. There are two different days (most years) that Christians around the world celebrate Easter. You may wonder why. The answer is found in the pages of church history.

The early Christian church did not have a set date to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Most churches recognized the holiday on any given Sunday in spring. So when the First Nicaean Council was held in 351 AD on the agenda was when Christians should celebrate Easter. The council made a twofold decision, 1) Easter should be celebrated on the same day by all Christians and 2) Easter should be independent of the Jewish Passover Feast. Before the council, many Christian churches consulted the Jewish calendar and celebrated Easter after Passover. The Council of Nicaea decided that Easter was a Christian holiday that should be celebrated separately from the Jewish calendar. The Council did not decide a specific computation for Easter at Nicaea. It took many years for the church to decide when to hold the holiday.

Easter was one of the many Christian rituals affected by the Great Schism.

Eventually, it was decided that Easter would be celebrated on the first Sunday after the first full moon after the vernal equinox (the first day of spring). However, by the time this computation was settled, the church was not as unified as it once was. In 1054 AD, the church suffered a split known as the Great Schism. The schism split Christianity into the Western and Eastern Churches. Easter was one of the many Christian rituals affected by the schism. While Western Christians used the Gregorian calendar, Eastern Christians used the Julian calendar. Also, the Eastern Church decided that Easter should always follow the Jewish Passover. These two differences put the Eastern celebration later in the spring than the Western.

In the West, Easter falls between March 22nd and April 25th. In the East, Easter is between April 4th and May 8th. Some years, such as 2010 and 2011, Easter lands on the same day in both the East and The West. This year, Christians in Western countries will celebrate Easter on April 21st. Eastern churches, in countries like Romania and Russia, will celebrate on April 28th. The dates are different but the purpose of the holiday is the same.

All believers recognize Easter as a time to celebrate Christ’s victory on the cross and his defeat of death at the resurrection. And for what greater purpose could Christians gather than to remember the pinnacle of human history when God became man and gave his life for his people and for his glory. So no matter the day, may you join with your brothers and sisters in Christ this Easter season and celebrate our risen King! May our hearts sing the words of this beloved hymn:

Behold the man upon a cross,
My sin upon His shoulders;
Ashamed, I hear my mocking voice
Call out among the scoffers.
It was my sin that held Him there
Until it was accomplished;
His dying breath has brought me life –
I know that it is finished.

I will not boast in anything,
No gifts, no power, no wisdom;
But I will boast in Jesus Christ,
His death and resurrection.
Why should I gain from His reward?
I cannot give an answer;
But this I know with all my heart –
His wounds have paid my ransom.

The Holy Spirit and Predestination

The Holy Spirit and Predestination

Word in Season

During the Spirit of Truth Conference Q&A Panel, people texted in many questions relating to the Holy Spirit’s role in predestination. Questions like these:

  • What is the Spirit’s role in predestination?
  • Can I receive the Holy Spirit if I was not predestined to Heaven?
  • If the Spirit starts the work in someone’s heart, does that imply that there is a distinction between chosen and unchosen?

We have to begin by defining predestination. Predestination is often associated with Calvinism, but it is a doctrine found all over Scripture, especially the New Testament (Matthew 24:22, 31; Mark 13:20, 27; Romans 8:33, 9:11, 11:5-7, 28; Ephesians 1:11; Colossians 3:12; 1 Thessalonians 1:4; 1 Timothy 5:21; 2 Timothy 2:10; Titus 1:1; 1 Peter 1:1-2, 2:9; 2 Peter 1:10, et.al.). Predestination means that God sovereignly chose (elected) certain individuals to salvation before the foundation of the world.

Sometimes the word predestination makes people think of robots, with no will or role in salvation. However, Ephesians 1:11-13 makes it clear that we are predestined by the will of God AND that those who are saved “heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, and believed in him.” In order to be saved, we must believe, and believing is a genuine act of our will (Romans 10:9, Ephesians 2:8). We are not robots; we choose to believe in the gospel by faith as it is revealed to us by the Holy Spirit.

So what is the Spirit’s role in this? In John 6:44, Jesus says, “No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him.” This drawing or calling to Christ is what Jesus explained to Nicodemus a few chapters earlier (John 3:7-8). After telling Nicodemus he must be born again, Jesus said: “Do not marvel that I said to you, ‘You must be born again. The wind blows where it wishes, and you hear its sound, but you do not know where it comes from or where it goes. So it is with everyone who is born of the Spirit.” The Holy Spirit draws us to Christ, and that is one of the Holy Spirit’s roles in predestination. The Spirit draws the unbeliever to Christ so that he may be born again.

When a person is drawn by the Spirit and trusts in Christ, he or she becomes a child of God and is indwelt by the Holy Spirit (Romans 8:15-17, 1 Corinthians 12:13). The Holy Spirit only indwells those who hear and believe the gospel. Also, Ephesians 1:13-14 teaches that the Holy Spirit seals the believer as a guarantee that the inheritance that God promises will be fully acquired. So not only does the Holy Spirit draw us to God and indwell us once we believe, but he also seals our position as children of God for eternity!

So that is a glimpse of what the Bible teaches about the Holy Spirit and predestination. The Bible teaches that man can not come to saving faith in God unless the Spirit draws him. The Holy Spirit awakens our hearts to Christ, draws us to him. Because of the Spirit, we find Jesus and his gospel compelling and beautiful and true. And the Spirit indwells all those he draws to Jesus and seals the believer forever. You can see all of these truths in Romans 8:30: “And those whom he predestined he also called, and those whom he called he also justified, and those whom he justified he also glorified.”

God is so gracious to us! He not only makes the plan for our salvation through Christ, he also completes it in us through the mighty work of his Spirit.

Who was Patrick of Ireland?

Who was Patrick of Ireland?

Moments in History

In the small town I grew up in people took Saint Patrick’s Day very seriously. What else would you expect from a town called O’Neill? In fact, O’Neill is known as the “Irish Capital of Nebraska.” When I was a child, Saint Patrick’s Day meant a giant four-leaf clover painted on the main intersection of town, at least one green horse in the parade, and Irish dancers clogging down the streets. Despite growing up with such festivities, I never really knew what the holiday was meant to celebrate. I heard the myth about Patrick chasing the snakes out of Ireland, but that was all I knew. It was not until I was older that I learned the true story of Patrick of Ireland and his importance in Christian history.

Though we do not know exactly when Patrick was born, we do know that he died on March 17, 461 AD. Likely, he was born around 385. Even though Patrick is known as an Irish saint, he was born in southern Britain, which at the time was occupied by the Roman Empire.

When he was 16 years old raiders kidnapped Patrick and took him to Ireland as a slave. Unlike his largely Christian homeland, the Irish Celts were pagan animists who worshiped nature. Even so, it was during his 6 years in slavery that Patrick turned to Christ as his savior. In his Confessions, he wrote that he prayed over one hundred times a day while working pigs for his masters. When Patrick saw the opportunity to escape Ireland he took it and returned to Britain.

Years later Patrick dreamt that the people of Ireland were calling out to him asking him to return and preach the gospel. He immediately began studying to teach God’s word. Eventually, he became a bishop. Most bishops in the fifth century stayed in urban areas and ministered to established churches. So when Patrick gave that up in order to preach the gospel to the pagans in Ireland, he did not have very much support. Even so, he spent the rest of his life in Ireland preaching God’s word to the people who once enslaved him.

What we can learn from the life of Patrick

1. The church must be about reaching the ends of the earth with the Gospel.

In Patrick’s time, Ireland was the furthest West that anyone knew or had traveled. Patrick was going to the ends of the earth, and he is an example to us of faithfully going out; leaving homelands and crossing cultures to preach Christ to the nations. And this was no short-term visit; he lived with the Irish and became their bishop. He is one of the great Christian missionaries of the early church and an example to us of obedience to the Great Commission.

2. We can use simple ideas to explain complex biblical truths.

Just as Jesus used stories about everyday objects and people to explain big truths about God, Patrick used items familiar with his audience to teach them important doctrines. Patrick is most famous for using the Irish clover to explain the Trinity. Though not a perfect illustration, it helped explain that important truth about God. The doctrine of the Trinity was especially important to Patrick because of the time in which he lived. The church had just emerged from the Arian controversy, which taught that God the Father was devine, but Christ and the Holy Spirt were not. Patrick saw the importance of teaching vital biblical truth to all believers. And he did this through simple words and illustrations, demonstrating that one doesn’t need big words to teach big truths.

3. God can use anyone who is faithful to do his work.

We all doubt ourselves, and Patrick was no different. He thought he lacked intelligence and most scholars consider him a sloppy writer. Yet, despite these weaknesses, God used him to reach the lost in Ireland and change the country forever. He was faithful to his calling. Danger knocked at his door regularly, but he relied on God’s power and Spirit to work wonders in the lives of those he reached. As it turns out, Patrick really did chase the snakes out of Ireland – snakes like idolatry and unbelief. He trusted God, and God used him greatly.

Patrick’s Own Words

To wrap this up, perhaps it is best to allow Patrick to speak for himself with a few of the most famous quotes from his Confessions:

“But after I came to Ireland – every day I had to tend sheep, and many times a day I prayed – the love of God and his fear came to me more and more, and my faith was strengthened. And my spirit was moved so that in a single day I would say as many as a hundred prayers, and almost as many in the night, and this even when I was staying in the woods and on the mountains; and I used to get up for prayer before daylight, through snow, through frost, through rain, and I felt no harm, and there was no sloth in me—as I now see, because the Spirit within me was then fervent.”


“Christ with me,
Christ before me,
Christ behind me,
Christ in me,
Christ beneath me,
Christ above me,
Christ on my right,
Christ on my left,
Christ when I lie down,
Christ when I sit down,
Christ when I arise,
Christ in the heart of every man who thinks of me,
Christ in the mouth of everyone who speaks of me,
Christ in every eye that sees me,
Christ in every ear that hears me.”


“I know for certain, that before I was humbled I was like a stone lying in deep mire, and he that is mighty came and in his mercy raised me up and, indeed, lifted me high up and placed me on top of the wall. And from there I ought to shout out in gratitude to the Lord for his great favours in this world and for ever, that the mind of man cannot measure.”

Three Reasons to Study Church History

Three Reasons to Study Church History

Church History

While working on my seminary degree I have taken many classes that are challenging, informative, and edifying. However, the one that has taught and encouraged me the most in God’s work and God’s Word is the one that I least expected: Church History.

We often think of history as dull and boring. Add the word “church” to it and all we picture is old men in old buildings reading old books. How could such things be of value to the modern believer? How could learning about past Christians benefit Christians today? There are many reasons, but let me share just a few.

1. Church history is fascinating.

Though history can be seen as boring, the history of the Christian church is not. It involves empires, lions, wars, debates, treason, missions, and global expansion. Church history is about kings, monks, warriors, lawyers, farmers, and explorers. Every century is packed with stories of men and women who did extraordinary acts for the Kingdom of God. Men and women were martyred in the Colosseum. Monks stood up to kings under punishment of death. Christians from around the world started global missions that sent Christians to every corner of the earth. Christian history is not merely a hub-drub list of councils and meetings, it is a long and epic story about a hardworking people and their faithful God.

2. Church history helps us learn from the mistakes of the past.

George Santayana famously said, “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” Christians can heed these words by learning not only the victories of Christianity in history, but also its failures. Many people have done great wrongs in the name of Christ. The Spanish Inquisition, the crusades, numerous cults, false-teachers, false-gospels, and corrupt governments are scattered throughout the history of the church. We often think there is no way we could repeat these events. However, history proves otherwise. Studying the past helps believers avoid the patterns that lead to these problems. This is beneficial for us and for our churches.

3. Studying Church History is a great way to study theology.

Remember the “old men” and “old books” I mentioned in the beginning? To be honest with you, those men and their books are in many ways the most interesting and helpful parts of Christian history. Today every church has a list of doctrinal beliefs that they hold as core truth, rooted in Scripture. What many Christians do not realize is the painstaking time, effort, and dedication it took the great theologians of history to prove and solidify these core teachings as biblical truths. Dozens of councils were held and thousands of hours were spent in order to discern what the Bible teaches about the deity of Christ, the tri-unity of God, and the role of works in salvation. Though most of us see these as settled theology, it has not always been so. Men and women were fed to beasts and burned at stakes standing for these vital truths. Studying church history allows us to see these key doctrines defended. They were forged on the anvil of adversity with the hammer of debate and study in a heat provided by a fiery passion for God’s truth. Church history shows us the triumphs and the troubles involved in fighting for the precious truths of God’s Word.

Now What?

For these reasons and more, I believe you should study church history. Not merely for a head knowledge that puffs up, but for a passion and joy that comes from observing God’s sovereign work in history through his people for his kingdom. But where do you begin?

Ridgeview Bible Church is doing two things to help introduce you to church history. First, every Thursday this summer we will be hosting “Theology Thursdays: Church History” a.k.a. “Throwback Thursdays.” We will be exploring the history of Christianity from Christ to today. The study will cover the major people, events, and theological debates of the past 2000+ years. Second, between now and this summer we will be publishing blog posts about historical events and people to get you thinking about the importance of history. So expect one of those very soon and we hope to see you at Theology Thursdays this summer!

Youth Group Kick-off!

Youth Group Kick-off!

Announcements

Ridgview youth Group logoHey Ridgeview!

Thursday we will be kicking-off our Junior High/High School Youth Group! We will gather at the church (in the Ridgeroom) at 7:00 PM for pizza, games, and  a time of digging into God’s Word! Be praying for this event and remember to encourage junior high and high school students to attend!

See you there!

Burt Newman